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France Bezlaj
Franc Zadravec
Janez Zor
Jože Toporišič
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Matjaž Kmecl
Franc Jakopin
Helga Glušič
Aleksander Skaza
Anton Slodnjak
Oton Župančič
Milko Matičetov
Joža Mahnič
Mirko Križman
Janko Kos
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Berta Golob
Nada Gaborovič
France Bernik
Boris Paternu
Jože Sever
Rudolf Trofenik
Rado Lenček
Janez Dolenc
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Janko Lavrin
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Božena Orožen
Lojzka Bratuž
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Tomo Korošec
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Zoltan Jan
France Novak
Wolfgang Eismann
Silvo Fatur
Ada Vidovič Muha



POVABILO K ČLANSTVU V DRUŠTVU:  

PRIJAVNICA 2016 


Podarite del dohodnine Slavističnemu društvu Slovenije




Obvestila predsednice




VABILO na KARIERNI DAN SLOVENISTOV IN SLAVISTOV, ki bo potekal v sredo, 13. 4. 2016, na Filozofski fakulteti, v predavalnici Tobačna 1 (Tobačna ulica 5).


Poslovni poročili društva za leto 2014 in 2015






Karierni dan slovenistov. Študentska sekcija Slavističnega društva Slovenije v sodelovanju s Kariernimi centri Univerze v Ljubljani. Urednici e-brošure: Lidija Rezoničnik in Nina Zavašnik. Oblikovanje: Duša Race. Slavistično društvo Slovenije, Ljubljana, 15. aprila 2015  


Karierni dan slovenistov
Slavistično društvo Slovenije na Calaméu


Posvet o maturi – e-zbornik prispevkov  



V Slavističnem društvu Slovenije smo pripravili e-zbornik člankov s posveta o slovenščini na splošni maturi, ki je v organizaciji ZD SdS potekal 18. decembra 2015 v Veliki sejni dvorani MOL.
Na tej povezavi so dosegljivi prispevki skoraj vseh sodelujočih na posvetu, ki ga je moderirala Boža Krakar Vogel.
Nabor prispevkov zaključuje diskusija o dvoravninskosti matur, v katerem sta (zaenkrat) objavljeni razmišljanji Igorja Sakside in Jerce Vogel.
Vabljeni k branju in komentiranju!



Strokovni posvet ob štiridesetletnici pokrajinskih slavističnih društev, 25. 9. 2015 



Kongres 2015

Stran Slovenskega slavističnega kongresa 2015

 



Slovenščina ima dolg jezik, Književnost na filmu 4


Slavistično društvo Slovenije, sekcija Znanost mladini, objavlja razpis tekmovanja iz znanja slovenščine v osnovnih in srednjih šolah za šolsko leto 2015/2016 Slovenščina ima dolg jezik, Književnost na filmu 4. Razpis z vsemi informacijami o tekmovanju in izobraževanjih je objavljen na spletni strani, rok za prijavo mentorjev in somentorjev na tekmovanje in izobraževanja pa je 10. september 2015.

Mojca Nidorfer, Znanost mladini, SdS


Strokovni posvet ob štiridesetletnici pokrajinskih slavističnih društev, 25. 9. 2015 



Kongres 2015

Stran Slovenskega slavističnega kongresa 2015

 



Tekmovanje iz znanja slovenščine za osnovnošolce in srednješolce Slovenščina ima dolg jezik (Književnost na filmu). Več informacij na straneh sekcije Znanost mladini.


Novo v Slavističnem društvu






Obvestilo o izvedbi tekmovanja iz znanja slovenščine za osnovnošolce in srednješolce Slovenščina ima dolg jezik






  • Sekcija učiteljev ruščine Slavističnega društva Slovenije (bivša Sekcija za ruski jezik)
  • Prireditve
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  • Povezave


    Irena Novak Popov: Novi sprehodi po slovenski poeziji Irena Novak Popov: Novi sprehodi po slovenski poeziji (Slavistična knjižnica, 19)

    Irena Novak Popov: Novi sprehodi po slovenski poeziji. Ljubljana: Slavistično društvo Slovenije, 2014 (Slavistična knjižnica, 19). 352 str. ISBN 978-961-6715-15-7.



    Povzetek

    Knjigo Novi sprehodi po slovenski poeziji sestavljajo trije deli, tako da prehaja od splošnih pregledov prek tematsko fokusiranih analiz do avtorskih opusov. Uvodno poglavje je najsplošnejša predstavitev sodobne slovenske poezije v drugi polovici 20. stoletja. »Razvoj« je pojmovan kot dinamično zaporedje sedmih vsebinsko-oblikovnih modelov in generacij. V grobem ga zaznamuje pospešeno stopnjevanje modernističnih inovacij do leta 1975, upočasnitev z navezovanjem in dopolnjevanjem nepopolno razvitega izročila do 1985 ter pluralizacija smeri, tokov in poetik v zadnjem desetletju postmoderne dobe. Spreminjanje ni zgolj premočrtno usmerjeno, ampak poteka tudi kot spiralno kroženje in zankanje, ker se noben literarni tok ni iztekel kot dokončno zaključen in ker se inovacijske težnje srečujejo z zavestnim obujanjem in navezovanjem na raznovrstne domače in tuje tradicije, preseganje starega pa z izvirnim spajanjem, hibridizacijo, kroženjem in recikliranjem besedilnih, slogovnih, oblikovnih in tematskih možnosti. Tudi sinhroni presek devetdesetih let 20. stoletja kaže na soobstoj, križanje in medsebojno oplajanje več smeri in teženj, med katerimi bi težko določili središčno ali dominantno. V živahnem ustvarjalnem procesu tedaj sodeluje na desetine avtorjev sedmih ali osmih generacij, s heterogenimi individualnimi pisavami. Analiza se zato omejuje na razbiranje opaznejših lastnosti: preseganje nacionalnega prek navezave na svetovno poezijo in dialog s klasiki slovenskega modernizma. Razosebljeno univerzalno izkušnjo izpodriva zasebna intimna, problematičnega in uporniškega izpovedovalca skromnejši, razpršen ali v osebno mitologijo potopljen posameznik. Pesniki se ambivalentno odzivajo na konec tisočletja, pretreseni ob vojnem nasilju, ki je povezano z novim samospraševanjem in premislekom o temeljih pesniške besede. Ob melanholiji po izgubi bivanjske polnosti se okrepijo humor, radoživi telesni karnevalizem, pozornost za enkratno živo pojavnost, korespondiranje z vesoljnimi zakonitostmi in subtilna duhovna iskanja celovitosti ter večna ljubezenska tematika, ki jo osveži novi motiv očetovstva. V antologiji mlade slovenske poezije med leti 1990 in 2003 »Mi se vrnemo zvečer« urednika Matevža Kosa je videti, da tudi mlajši pesniki nadaljujejo divezifikacijo in odkrivajo lastne poti s sklicevanjem na velike pesniške predhodnike, z vključevanjem specifičnih vednosti, tujejezičnimi vrivki in dialogi s filozofijo. O univerzalnih problemih njihova lirika govori na način zasebnosti, posameznosti in lokalnosti, o velikih eksistencialnih zastavkih skozi trenutek, fragment, majhno zgodbo, vsakdanji pripetljaj, in o duhu časa skozi razpoloženje, atmosfero, zaznavo, hipno spoznanje diskrepance med bleščečim videzom in nevidno resnico. Razpoznavni so: lirika emocij, ki se navdihuje v neposredni vsakdanji izkušnji in izreka v na videz preprostem, vendar skrivnostno posrednem izrazu; intelektualna distanca, refleksivnost in esteticizem; umetnostna erudicija, kombinirana z intertekstualnostjo, opazovanje in refleksija konkretnega urbanega življenja, v katerega so vpleteni arhetipi, okruški mitov ali folklore, vključevanje poezije v multimedijske performanse, ki se izvajajo v glasbeno-literarnih navezah. Pridevnik »mlad« kot zasilno oznako za inovacije, ki jih v sodobno poezijo prinašajo nove generacije pesnikov in jih zaradi individualne raznolikosti ni mogoče sistematično povzeti v globalno oznako, je rabljen tudi za pesnike, rojene po letu 1970, ki se uveljavljajo v zadnjem desetletju. Vrnitev mimetičnosti, emocionalnosti in koncentracija na zasebno, subjektivno predstavljeno izkušnjo vabi k rabi izraza neointimizem, s tem da se kontemplativni lirski subjekt dojema skozi drugega. Izrekanje implicitnih kritičnih sodb, (avto)ironična in elegična drža so utemeljeni v etičnosti. Onotološke zastavke zamenjujejo družbeni, politični, civilizacijski, psihološki in literarni: soočenje z globalnimi in lokalnimi anomalijami (materializmom, potrošništvom, kapitalskim izrabljanjem človeških in naravnih virov, nasiljem, trgovino, prevlado videza). Refleks navidezne svobode in realne nemoči je omejitev na zasebnost, medčloveške odnose, njen kontrapunkt pa občutljivost, dojemljivost, odprtost za drugega/drugačnega. V pogostem motivu potovanja in očaranosti s tujimi svetovi gre za širjenje duhovnega prostora in prepoznavanje sebe/svojega. V dialoški naravnanosti, odprtosti in interakciji se kaže odpor do totalne racionalizacije in instrumentalizacije, zato so izpostavljene individualne izbire glede načina življenja, vrednot, jezika, priljubljenih umetniških praks, artefaktov in avtorjev. Literarna refleksija se dotika položaja poezije in pesnika v družbi, zato se odnos do tradicije vzpostavlja zunaj tekmovanja za mesto v kanonu in vključuje osebno recepcijo. Z osebno motiviranimi intertekstualnimi, intermedialnimi in interdiskurzivnimi razsežnostmi najmlajši pesniki (A. Polič, S. Hrastelj, J. Jakob, B. Pogačnik, A. Pepelnik idr.) nadaljujejo elitnost in kompleksnost slovenske poezije: dinamiko, intenzivnost, emocionalnost in intelektualno iskrivost.

    Drugi del začenjata poglavji, ki se refleksivno nanašata na predhodno praktično delo. Odprta vprašanja kanona in poučevanja je premislek izbiranja in didaktičnega procesiranja besedil sodobne slovenske poezije za novo berilo pri gimnazijskem pouku književnosti. Institucija šole kot posredovalke literarnih vrednot oz. simbolnih kulturnih dobrin predpostavlja in zahteva vzpostavitev omejene množice odličnih avtorjev in del. Poleg kanonizacije, tj. nezaključenega dinamičnega procesa izbiranja je bilo treba upoštevati današnje stanje literarne vede (kritike, zgodovine in teorije) in se zavedati vpletenosti, subjektivnosti in odgovornosti položaja strokovne »avtoritete« v kompleksno razvejanem sodobnem literarnem življenju – tekmujočih interesov skupin in posameznikov, ki producirajo, razširjajo in sprejemajo literarna besedila. Še posebej vznemirljive so naslednje dileme: koga izbrati, katero literarno delo in zakaj je reprezentativno za neko celoto, kako naj bo glede na naslovnika predstavljeno, da mu bo priznana posebna izrazna in vsebinska vrednost in s tem upravičena uvrstitev v šolsko antologijo. V naslednjem poglavju se posvečam vprašanju statusa slovenskih pesnic v literarni zgodovini in se sprašujem o interesih v ozadju ustvarjanja, razlage in posredovanja literarnega kanona. Slovenski literarni sistem se glede na položaj ustvarjalk kaže kot tradicionalno omejen, saj ohranja patriarhalne vzorce vrednotenja in dojemanja spolnih identitet ter pesnice potiska v večno obrobnost: odsotnost v antologijah, literarnih zgodovinah, zbranih delih in berilih. Zato je šele nedavno nastala obsežnejša Antologija slovenskih pesnic, ki ob vseh zagatah ločene (paralelne) tradicije odpira tudi vprašanje, kako podobo drugega in drugačnega konstruirajo same ustvarjalke oziroma o čem govorijo in o čem molčijo pesnice. Visokošolski študij je prvo mesto in priložnost za preusmeritev pozornosti v neraziskano pokrajino slovenske poezije, feministična literarna veda pa sklop teoretskih orodij, s katerimi je mogoče preseči monolog enega samega univerzaliziranega spola. Slovenska narečna poezija je danes že močno razvejan in notranje diferenciran kulturno-umetnostni pojav. Iz nekoč zaprtih, jezikovno samozadostnih geografsko-jezikovnih območij prehaja v širšo kulturno zavest kot dragocena regionalna posebnost in individualnost, ki poleg etnologov, folkloristov in dialektologov zanima tudi literarno stroko, kolikor je odprta za kontekstualne vidike raziskovanja in vrednotenja. Nekoč je pesnjenje v narečju veljalo za omejeno na socialno prikrajšane sloje, manjšine v zamejstvu, literarno neizobražene iz nerazvitih, obrobnih pokrajin, zdaj je literarna raba narečja način opredeljevanja posameznikove pripadnosti, individualne in lokalne identitete, volje po ohranjanju izginjajočega ali že izginulega sveta, preteklih načinov kolektivnega življenja in težnje po neposrednem izražanju intimnih individualnih izkušenj in občutij.

    Dve poglavji sta posvečeni raziskavi stikanja poezije in glasbe. Specifika lirske govorice je posebna glasovna, naglasna in intonacijska organiziranost, ki učinkuje spevno, kar sta poudarjali že romantična in simbolistična estetika, ko sta se z navezavo na prvinski glas izvijali iz spon racionalizma. Uglasbeno in zapeto pesem sprejemamo z drugačno naravnanostjo: v poslušanju idejno-racionalna plast in refleksivnost stopata v ozadje, okrepi pa se emocionalna plast pesniškega sporočila. Stikanje poezije in glasbe ima v slovenski kulturi dolgo tradicijo, ki sega v péto ljudsko pesem, zgodnje načrtovanje operetnega predstavljanja, v domoljubne budnice in himne, samospeve na podlagi lirskih besedil, danes pa priča o raznovrstnih možnostih intermedialnega križanja, ki se dogaja ob rahljanju mej med elitno in popularno kulturo. Na sožitje vpliva razvoj radiofonije, tehnološki razvoj zvočnih nosilcev in stopnjevana navzočnost glasbe v našem vsakdanjem življenju. Ti procesi se nadaljujejo v novih oblikah interakcije. Posebej zanimivi so tisti sodobni pesniki, ki v naslovih, imenih, motivih, življenjski filozofiji in glasbeno motivirani kompoziciji besedil izpričujejo trajno zanimanje za zvočnost. Opisani so tudi njihovi večmedijski projekti in glasbeno-pesniški dogodki, ki so bili posneti na alternativnih kulturnih prizoriščih in so dostopni na zvočnih nosilcih ali kot videospoti preneseni na splet. Multikulturne vidike obravnava poglavje Pesniški dialog s tujino. Teoretsko izhaja iz Bahtinovega koncepta jaza in drugega, praktično pa analizira ubeseditve eksistencialne izkušnje v tujih svetovih. Tu se zrcali tako specifični slovenski opazovalec, obremenjen z domačo zgodovinsko, socialno in kulturno izkušnjo, kot prisvojeni svetovi drugega. V produktivnem srečanju se jazu razpirajo globinska vprašanja lastne identitete in ustvarjanja v maternem jeziku. Literarni svetovi pesnikov v »prostovoljnem eksilu« so raznovrstnejši in vrednostno bolj protislovni od medijsko posredovanih, politično uporabnih stereotipov o tujem in svojem. Tudi pomen telesa pesniki vzpostavljajo na ozadju poljudnih strokovnih govoric in kodov drugih umetnosti. V kompleksnem pesniškem jeziku je vidno konfliktno razmerje med posameznikovim samodoživljanjem, intimno izkušnjo in medijsko posredovanimi politično-propagandnimi sporočili, ki vso človeško resničnost reducirajo na nekaj družbeno koristnih funkcij. V etično in čustveno motiviranem vrednotenju, ironiji, groteski in potujitvi so razkrojene fantazme: namesto zapovedanega ideala o srečnem, zdravem, lepem, mladem telesu pesniki izpostavljajo bolečino razsute, izgubljene, samoodtujene, stigmatizirane, marginalizirane osebe, ki se bori za občutenje resničnosti lastnega bivanja. Zadnje poglavje v drugem delu analizira družinske odnose, v katerih je zarisan emocionalni portret slovenske družbe druge polovice 20. stoletja. Individualni pogled na družino ni odvisen le od estetskih teženj, ampak je globinsko povezan s pojmovanjem spolnih vlog in osebnimi izkušnjami. Ideal sreče v nuklearni družini se je razkrojil zaradi modernizacije, alienacije in agresije, zato je tudi zakonska zveza postala zadušljiva, izpraznjena ali sprevržena oblika sobivanja in šele v zadnjem času je spet postala srečna najdba, redek dar. Najbolj trajno navzoče je ljubeče razmerje do otrok in idealizirano otroštvo. Očetovstvo jr postalo obljuba odgovornega sodelovanja, materinstvo pa je prikazano kot vsakodnevna zaveza, ki vodi v izčrpanost, pozabo osebne svobode, otopevanje občutljivosti in izgubo uglašenosti med partnerjema.

    Razprave tretjega dela so posvečene posameznim pesniškim opusom. Ljubka Šorli je med vsemi slovenskimi pesnicami napisala največ sonetov. Ker je bil sonet že za Prešerna znamenje obvladanja zahtevnega oblikovanja, je postal najbolj razširjena stalna pesniška oblika/žanr slovenske poezije in medbesedilni kazalec navezave na klasiko in romantično poezijo. Tudi pesnikom 20. stoletja pomeni preskus zbranosti, osredotočenosti, distancirane refleksije, uravnotežanja dinamičnih napetosti in spevnosti. Šorlijeva je v sonetni formi od leta 1940 dalje gojila ljubezensko, razpoloženjsko, refleksivno, domoljubno in religiozno izpoved. Literarna zgodovina je to izbiro povezovala s slovensko, predvsem primorsko tradicijo, ob tem pa obšla prispevek pesnic, ki so razmeroma zgodaj osvojile zahtevni sonet. Tu je natančno analizirana njena uresničitev forme: izbira verznega vzorca, načini rimanja, ritem, verzna razčlenjenosti in prestopi ter kompozicija. Rastlinsko in živalsko podobje v zgodnjih zbirkah Svetlane Makarovič za odrasle ponazarja razpoloženja lirskega subjekta in atmosfero, v naslednjih pa emocije, medčloveške odnose, prekrške in zločine nad šibkejšimi bitji. Z izpostavljanjem individualnih, izvirnih vidikov pesnica izpričuje razočaranje in ogorčenje nad izgubo skladnosti z naravnimi silami in pozabo svetosti življenja. Specifični nabor živalskih vrst usklajuje s kozmičnimi ciklusi, ob rastlinskih pa ustvarja vtis poznavalke endemičnih zelišč z zdravilnimi in škodljivimi učinki. Pesmi aktualizirajo, sprevračajo in groteskno potencirajo pozitivne in negativne pomenske vrednosti, ki jih živemu svetu pripisuje kultura, še posebej predznanstvena vednost v konceptu velike verige bitij, in jih zato z lahkoto prepoznavamo in sprejemamo tudi odtujeni sodobniki. Obsežnega in neujemljivega opusa Tomaža Šalamuna ne opazujem per se, temveč skozi vidik intertekstualnosti: analiziram besedila in avtorje, ki se nanj sklicujejo, tako da si prisvajajo njegove jezikovne postopke, besedilne strategije in subjektove drže, ga interpretacijsko vrednotijo in z njim dialogizirajo kot apostrofirano osebo. Šalamuna upodabljajo kot vzorec tveganja brez preračunljivosti, zgled odprtosti in svobode, ki si drzne izreči tako rekoč vse. V gostoti citatov, aluzij, posnetkov in dialogov je moč prepoznati značilnosti postmodernega (postmodernističnega) obrata v literaturo, ki nastaja iz literature, pomembnejši pa se zdi konstrukt izjemne osebnosti kot emblema, znaka, antonomazije modernega pesnika. Očarljiva priložnostna poezija, ki jo je verzolog in prevajalec Tone Pretnar poimenoval grafomanija, je oblika intelektualne zabave za slavistični 'salon', vendar jo določajo mojstrstvo forme in igriva raziskava jezika. Njihova imanentna lastnost je naravnanost na naslovnika z imenom, ki je zapisano v akrostihu. Akrostih, rima in metrični verz kažejo zahtevno formo, iz mešanja socialno- in časovnozvrstno heterogenega besedja in jezikovnih iger pa izvira duhovitost. Z obojim grafomanije presegajo trivialnost in se uvrščajo v pesniški ludizem, na drugi strani pa samoironična distanca, parodična demontaža in inovativno sklicevanje na pesniško klasiko sodijo v kontekst postmodernizma, ki ceni vsakovrstno citatnost. Najproduktivnejši pesnik prekmurskega prostora Milan Vincetič je z motivno-tematskimi konstantami in formalno kontinuiteto v petindajsetih letih ustvaril prepoznavno avtorsko in regionalno specifično poetiko. Ob prevladi velemestnega kozompolitizma in dialoga s svetovno poezijo pri pesnikih njegove in mlajših generacij imamo vztrajanje pri ožjeslovenskih identitetnih izbirah lahko za posebno kvaliteto. Njegovo modernistično zmes tvorijo depersonalizacija, iskanost, abstraktnost, enigmatičnost, alogičnost, glasovno in besedotvorno igranje; kompleks postmodernizma je sooblikoval z mitotvorstvom, intimizacijo in ludičnostjo, po oblikovni dogananosti pa je primerljiv z mojstri pesniške dovršenosti, ki se navezujejo na »čisto poezijo« historičnega simbolizma in romantike. Manj znano in malo poglobljene pozornosti vzbujajoče je pesnjenje Ferija Lainščka, plodovitega in uspešnega pisatelja prekmurskega prostora. Njegova poezija pozna dve fazi: prvo, med leti 1981 in 1990, bi zaradi eliptičnosti, fragmentiranosti, enigmatičnosti, simboličnosti, družbene kritičnosti, deformacije, svobodnih verznih in kitičnih oblik lahko označili kot različico elitnega, hermetičnega modernizma, v drugi, po letu 2001 pa ustvarja spevne, metrične, rimane verze v klasičnih kiticah, z bolj tradicionalnimi podobami in motivi. Popularnost je dosegel s posebno perspektivo na večno ljubezensko temo, zasidranostjo v prekmursko pokrajino, ki ji daje pečat ciganska glasbena kultura, z izstopom iz omejujočih družbenih norm, vztrajanjem pri emocionalni avtentičnosti, filozofijo enkratnosti življenja in neponovljivosti časa, iz katere izvira melanholičen ton. Esad Babačić je v moderno poezijo stopil od spodaj, z ulice, in vanjo vnesel neposreden, oster, barbarsko svež glas. Z leti ga je kultiviral in izbrusil, vendar je vseskozi ohranil pridih nepodkupljive avtentičnosti. V pesmih ni recikliral literarnih besedil, ni se navezoval na pretekle stile, pač pa je črpal iz življenjske izkušnje. Zato se v njih čuti čustveno in refleksivno odzivanje na dogajanje in duhovno klimo določenega zgodovinskega časa in prostora. Pesnik se ni pretirano ukvarjal s kultiviranjem forme, raziskovanjem jezikovnega medija, temveč gradil na spontani, impulzivni ekspresivnosti. V poznejših zbirkah je izraz bolj zadržan, izrekanje asketsko minimalistično, humor pa najpomembnejši način premagovanja ranljivosti.

    Na koncu je predstavljena literarna raba domačega jezika (nadiškega narečja) pri pesnikih z obrobja slovensko govorečega sveta, ki priča o prebujeni samozavesti slabo poznane manjšine v Beneški Sloveniji. S tematsko in oblikovno analizo nedavno objavljenih zbirk Marine Cernetig, Gabrielle Tomasetig, Alda Klodiča in Andreine Trusgnach skušam prikazati, kako je mogoče dosežke posameznih mikrosfer znotraj vseslovenskega literarnega sistema obravnati in vrednotiti v okviru specifičnega jezikovnokulturnega konteksta in vitalnih učinkov poezije v njem.



    Summary

    The book Novi sprehodi po slovenski poeziji (New wanders through Slovene poetry) is structured into three parts: general surveys, thematically focused analyses and individual authors' writing. The introductory chapter is a universal presentation of contemporary Slovene poetry in the second half of the 20th century. »Evolution« is considered as a dynamic sequence of seven substance-form models, created by the coming new generations of poets. Roughly speaking, the progress can be traced as the acceleration of modernist innovations until 1975, slowing down, relating to and completing not fully developed heritage until 1985, plurality of literary currents and trends in the last decade which coincides with the postmodern spirit. The differentiation does not take linear course, but moves in spirals and loops because in the meantime no literary current has ceased as definitive and because innovative tendencies concur with conscious reviving of and relying on heterogeneous domestic and foreign traditions. Surpassing of the old meets with original blending, hybridizing, circulating and recycling of textual, formal, stylistic and thematic possibilities.

    Similarly, a synchronic description of the decade 1990s manifests co-existence, breeding and reciprocal impregnation of several currents and tendencies, none of which can be set as central and dominant. Tens of poets, belonging to seven or eight generations, participate in vivid creative process. Each of these poets develops her/his individual style complex. My analysis is therefore devoted to discern some evident common features, for instance the surpassing of national constraints by appropriation of world poetry and dialogue with the classics of Slovene modernism. The former depersonalised universal experience is superseded by the intimate one, the problematic and rebellious subjectivity is replaced by an unpretentious individual who is either dispersed or absorbed in her/his mythology. The poets respond with ambiguity to the end of the millennium, being shocked by the violence of new wars, which leads them into new interrogation about the foundation of poetry. Beside melancholy from the loss of existential fullness there is an increased sense of humour, jovial carnivalism, attentiveness to unique vital phenomena, harmony with cosmic principles, a subtle spiritual quest for wholeness and everlasting theme of love, freshened by the motif of fatherhood.

    The anthology of the young Slovene poetry between 1990 and 2003 »Mi se vrnemo zvečer«, edited by Matevž Kos, likewise demonstrates that younger poets continue with diversification, discover their own modes by referring to the great poetic predecessors, integrating specific learning in humanities, inserting quotations in foreign languages and addressing philosophy. Poems speak of universal problems in intimate, local and particular manner, of great existential stakes by means of instants, fragments, small stories, trivial incidents, and of spirit of the time by way of mood, atmosphere, perception, revelation of discrepancy between brilliant appearance and hidden truth. Notable are the lyricism of emotions, inspired by everyday experiences, uttered in apparently simple, yet mysteriously indirect expressions; artistic erudition, combined with intertextuality; observation of concrete urban life, interspersed with archetypes, fragments of myths and folklore; integration of poetry into multimedia events, performed in association of musicians and poets.

    The adjective »young« – a provisional term for the innovations, introduced by new generations, which cannot be systematically summed up in a comprehensive label due to their diversity – is also used for the poets, born after 1970, gaining recognition in the last decade. The return of mimetic mode, emotions, concentration on intimate, subjectively presented experience seem to encourage the use of label »the new intimism«, except that the contemplative subject understands her-/himself by means of the other. Implicit critical judgments, ironic and self-ironic attitudes are based on ethics. Ontological problems are changed for social, political, civil, psychological and literary ones: encounters with global and local anomalies such as materialism, consumption, capitalist exploitation of natural and human resources, terror, trade. The response to apparent freedom and real lack of power is limitation to privacy and intersubjective relationships, whose counterpart is sensitivity for and apprehension of the other/the different one. Frequent motifs of travelling and of being enchanted by foreign worlds signify the expansion of spiritual space and recognition of one’s own self. In dialogue, openness, interaction there is a resistance to total rationalisation and instrumentalism, consequently one can notice individual choices of life style, values, language, favourite artistic practices, artefacts and authors. Literary reflection touches the status of a poet and poetry within modern society. Personal reception is stressed, as the relation to tradition is being established beyond the competition for the position in literary canon. Due to individual intertextual, intermedial and interdiscursive dimensions the youngest poets (A. Polič, S. Hrastelj, J. Jakob, B. Pogačnik, A. Pepelnik) perpetuate complex, elitist nature of Slovene poetry: its dynamics, intensity, emotionality and intellectual brilliance.

    The second part begins with two chapters that reflect my prior practical activity. Open questions of literary canon and teaching is a contemplation on selection and didactic processing of contemporary poetry texts intended for a new reading-book in grammar school. School institution as provider of literary values, i.e. symbolic cultural goods, assumes and demands that a limited number of distinguished authors and works be established. Therefore, the framework of my reflection is open issues, related to the so- called canonisation, an unfinished process of selection. Besides, one has to consider the existing state of literary science (criticism, history, theory) and be aware of the involvement, subjectivity and responsibility of the professional ‘authority’ in distinctively complex contemporary literary life (of competing interests of groups and individuals, producing, distributing, receiving and processing literary texts). Particularly intriguing were the following dilemmas: Whom and which literary work to choose? Why is this work representative of a certain whole? How should it be presented with regard to the recipient, in order to be recognised as a special expressive and content value, justifying its inclusion in school anthology? In the next chapter I broach the subject of the status of Slovene female poets in literary history and call into question the interests that lie behind the creation, interpretation and transmission of the literary canon. In this regard, Slovene literary system shows itself to be traditionally limited, as it retains patriarchal patterns of evaluating and comprehending sexual identities, pushing female poets into permanent marginality, shown by their absence from anthologies, literary histories, collected works and readers. Therefore an extensive Anthology of Slovene female poets appeared only recently. Besides all the other issues of separate or parallel tradition, this anthology raises the question as to how the image of ‘the second sex’ is constructed by female poets themselves, or what they speak of and what they remain silent on. University study represents an opportunity to redirect attention into this unresearched landscape of Slovene poetry, while feminist literary studies offer a range of theoretical tools with which to break through the monologue of a single, universal gender.

    Slovene dialect poetry is nowadays a very heterogeneous and internally differentiated cultural-artistic phenomenon. From relatively closed, linguistically independent geographical-linguistic areas it is becoming a part of the wider cultural awareness as a valuable regional speciality and a mark of individuality. For this reason, it no longer attracts only the attention of ethnologist, folklore specialists and dialecticians, but also of literary specialists with cultural and sociological interests who introduce contextual aspects into research and evaluation. In former times it was held that writing poetry in a dialect was by definition limited to socially deprived classes, minorities in neighbouring countries without literary education, whereas now the literary use of a dialect becomes a way of defining an individual and local identity. In addition, it is combined with desires to preserve a disappearing or already disappeared world, past forms of collective life, and aspiration to express intimate individual experiences and emotions directly.

    Two chapters are devoted to the research into relation between poetry and music. Lyrical language is marked by vocal, stress and intonation organisation, so that the poem has a melodious effect when being pronounced, as it was emphasised by both Romantic and Symbolist aesthetics when they left behind the realm of rationalism, by binding themselves to the primal voice. We receive poems set to music and sung in a different way: the conceptual, rational and reflexive layers retreat into the background, while the emotional layer is strengthened. There is a long tradition of contacts between poetry and music within Slovene culture. This tradition reaches back to the sung folk poem, to the presentation of early operettas, patriotic anthems and hymns, and solos, based on lyric poems. Today there is a wide range of possibilities for mixed media forms in loosely defined space between elite and popular culture. This symbiosis is influenced by the development of radio, the technological development of sound-bearing media and by the increased presence of music in our everyday lives. These processes expand in new forms of interaction. Especially relevant are those contemporary poets who exhibit permanent interest for sonority by naming musicians, using music pieces as titles, as well as acoustic motifs, philosophy of transience and such structuring which imitates musical composition. The chapter describes some multimedia projects and poetry-with- music events that have been recorded on alternative culture stages and in private studios and are now accessible on CDs and as videos on the internet.

    The chapter Poetic dialogue with foreign countries deals with multicultural aspects. Its theoretical source is Bakhtin’s concept of self and other, applied to the analyses of poetic rendering of the experience from abroad. These texts reflect a specific Slovene observer, weighted down with domestic historical, social and cultural experience, as well as the appropriated world of the other. In productive contact profound questions of identity and of creativity in the mother tongue are revealed to the self. The literary worlds created by Slovene poets in ‘voluntary exile’ are complex and more contradictory than the politically exploited stereotypes that are offered by the media. The meaning of the human body is also constituted in poetry against the background of popular scientist language and the codes of other art forms. In the complex language of poetry it is possible to discern the conflict between individual self-perception and intimate experience, and political propaganda messages distributed by the media, which reduce human reality to a few socially useful functions. In ethically and emotionally motivated evaluation, sense of irony, grotesque and estrangement, phantasms disintegrate: instead of the prescribed ideal of a young, happy, healthy body, the poets emphasise the pain of fragmented, lost, self-alienated, stigmatised, marginalised individuals, struggling to feel the reality of their own existence.

    The last chapter in the second part deals with the family relations that draw the emotional portrait of Slovene society in the second half of the 20th century. Individual views are not only dependent on aesthetic tendencies, but are also closely connected with social gender roles and the author’s personal experiences. The ideal of happiness in nuclear family has disintegrated due to modernisation, alienation and aggression, therefore the marriage has also turned into suffocating, empty or perverse form of cohabitation, until recently when it has been restored to a happy finding, a rare gift. The most durable are the loving relation with children and the idealised image of childhood. Fatherhood has been conceived as a promise for responsible collaboration, while motherhood is presented as an everyday obligation that leads to exhaustion, forgetting one’s freedom, blunt sensitivity and loss of harmony between spouses.

    Discussions in the third part are devoted to individual creative work. Ljubka Šorli has written the highest number of sonnets among all Slovene female poets. A sonnet, which was already the sign of mastering the complicated form for Prešeren, has become most prevalent fixed form/genre in Slovene poetry, an index of referring to the classic and the poetry of romanticism. For the poets of the20th century, it also means a test of concentration, composure, distanced reflection, balance of dynamic tensions, and melody. Šorli has used the sonnet form since 1940 for love, mood, reflexive, patriotic and religious poetry. Literary historians have associated this choice with Slovene, especially Mediterranean tradition, but disregarded the achievements of female poets who have mastered the exacting form relatively early. The chapter on Ljubka Šorli’s sonnets is a meticulous analysis of verse patterns, rhythm, rhymes, verse segmentation, enjambments and composition. In the early collections of poetry for adults by Svetlana Makarovič plant and animal imagery illustrates the mood of the lyrical subject and the atmosphere, while in the later collections this imagery depicts emotions and interpersonal relationships, as well as offences and crimes against the weaker beings. By emphasising the individual, original aspects the poet expresses disappointment and indignation at the loss of harmony with natural forces and the neglect of the sacredness of life. The specific selection of animal species is aligned with cosmic cycles, while the choice of plant motifs creates the impression of an authority on endemic herbs with their healing and harmful effects. The poems make topical overturn and grotesquely intensify the positive and negative semantic values that are attributed to the living world by culture, especially pre-scientific knowledge in the concept of the great chain of being, which can easily be recognized and accepted even by alienated contemporaries. The extensive and elusive poetic work of Tomaž Šalamun is not examined as such and for its own sake, but rather by means of intertextual relations with younger poets and later works that refer to Šalamun. They appropriate his linguistic methods, textual strategies and subjective pose, interpret and evaluate his poetry, engage in dialogue with the person, addressed in apostrophes. Šalamun is depicted as an example of boldness without self-interest, openness and freedom, as a person who dares to speak of everything. In the quantity of quotes, allusions, pastiches and dialogues one can recognize the postmodern turn to literature made out of literature, but the most important seems to be a construct of an outstanding personality that has become an emblem, symbol, antonomasia of modern poet. The charming occasional poetry, named graphomania by its author, a verse theorist, literary historian and translator Tone Pretnar, used to be a form of intellectual entertainment in ‘salon’ of scholars in Slavic studies. Graphomania is characterised by formal masterhood and playful research of language. Its immanent feature is the orientation towards the addressee, whose name is written in acrostic. The acrostic, rhyme and metric verse signify a difficult form, while the blending of words that belong to different social strata and time styles is a source of wittiness. Both make this type of verse surpass the trivial ones and place it in the poetic of ludism, while self-ironic distance, parodistic dismantling and innovative reference to classic authors belong to postmodernism that cherishes all types of quotations. Milan Vincetič, the most productive poet from the Panonian region (Prekmurje), has created distinctive personal and regional poetics with his motifs, thematic constants and formal continuity. In the prevalent cosmopolitism of large cities and dialogue with world literature, noted in his and younger generations, his perseverance in restricted Slovene identity can be seen as a specific quality. His modernist blend consists of depersonalisation, inquiry, enigma, illogicality, exploration in sound and word-formation. To the postmodernist complex he contributed mythopoetic dimensions, intimacy and playfulness, while his formal elaboration is comparable to the masters of perfection that rely on ‘pure poetry’ of historic symbolism and romanticism.

    The poetic work of Feri Lainšček, the most prolific and famous novel writer from Prekmurje, has so far been almost unknown and overlooked. His poetry falls into two phases: the first one from 1981 until 1990 could be labelled as a variant of elite hermetic modernism, due to ellipses, fragments, enigmas, symbols, social criticism, deformation, free verse and stanza forms. In the second one, after 2001, he creates melodious, metrical, rhymed verses in regular stanzas, with traditional imagery and motifs. He has become very popular because of a specific view on the eternal topic of love, deep-rooted in his native land that bears the stamp of gipsy culture, the step out from social norms, insistence on emotional sincerity, philosophy of unique existence and irreversible time from which melancholic tones emerge. Esad Babačić has entered the modern poetry scene from below, from the street, and brought into it a direct, fresh, barbarian voice. In the course of years he has cultivated and refined it, but nevertheless preserved the spirit of uncorrupted authenticity. He has not recycled poetry texts or referred to the past styles, but has made use of life experiences. Consequently, the emotional and mental responses to events and social atmosphere of a certain time and space can be noted. Babačić has not been excessively concerned with the cultivation of form and exploration of the verbal medium, but has created a spontaneous, impulsive expression. In the later phase of his poetry his diction is more reserved, ascetic and minimized, while the sense of humour becomes a significant method to overcome vulnerability. Literary use of the Nattisone Valley dialect, the first language of poets from Venetian Slovenia (Slavia Veneta/Beneška Slovenija), i.e. the farthest margin of Slovene speaking world in the north-west, is presented in the last chapter. It testifies to the awakened self-confidence in the scarcely known ethnic minority. By analysing topics and forms of the recently published collections by Marina Cernetig, Gabriella Tomasetig, Aldo Klodič and Andreina Trusgnach, I try to demonstrate the possibility of consideration and evaluation of contributions from various microspheres to the totality of national literary system, seeing them within specific linguistic and cultural context in which they perform specific vital functions.




    Na http://wff1.ff.uni-lj.si/slovjez/sds/sds.html postavil Miran Hladnik 28. 10. 2004, stran na FF-jevem strežniku nazadnje osvežil mhladnik 23. okt. 2010. Preselitev spletišča na http://641.gvs.arnes.si/sds.html opravil Matjaž Zaplotnik 4. januarja 2011. Datum zadnje spremembe: 6. 4. 2016.


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